jim Davis

United War Fund

Oct 4, 2018

Three days after the drive for the Fourth Liberty Loan began on September 28, 1918, the citizens of North Dakota had subscribed to $12 million of the state’s $19 million quota. But liberty loans involved redeemable bonds. Although the sale of bonds tied up personal finances, the money would eventually be returned with interest, and the end of the war appeared to be in sight.    

Fourth Liberty Loan

Sep 26, 2018

From the American perspective in September of 1918, the allies in France needed to take the offensive instead of continuing the battle of attrition associated with trench warfare. American leaders were willing to commit what was necessary to get the job done quickly. Initially it would result in more casualties, but it promised to bring an earlier end to the war.

Albert Grass

Sep 18, 2018

John Grass, or Charging Bear, was a beloved leader of the Teton Sioux and an ardent supporter of the war effort.  July of 1917, although weakened by a prolonged illness, the elderly chief accepted the vice-chairmanship of the Red Cross for Sioux County.  He stated that as a young man he went to war many times, but his thoughts were not of death but of honor.  Although it caused him great grief to see his children going into battle, there was joy in his heart to know they were not cowards.

Red Cross

Sep 13, 2018

As more young men left for the battlefields of France, service flags were proudly displayed in homes, business, churches and social organization across North Dakota. In fact, service flags were such a popular display of patriotism, that service flag stationary became available. Each page of writing paper or envelope contained a star for each member of the family serving in the military, along with the emblem of the branch of service to which they belonged. 

Jewish Homeland

Sep 5, 2018

Among the North Dakota soldiers fighting somewhere in France, were a number of young men of Jewish faith.  Sam Rigler, from Taylor, North Dakota, trusted in his faith to survive life in the trenches.  He was quoted in the newspaper as saying, “There I was huddled up against the side of a trench...  I silently offered prayers to God and asked for divine guidance and protection.” In a letter to his brother, he stated: “The word was passed around that we were going over the top at 5 AM.  Just before daybreak we climbed over, packs thrown away, but rifles loaded and bayonets fixed… The battle was raging, shells cracking, hissing and exploding but a few feet away… we crept along close to the ground.  Dawn was setting in and the explosion of the shells lighted up the sky.  There we were, out there in No Man’s Land and only the will of God could save us.”

Newspaper Printing

Aug 28, 2018

Weekly or daily, depending upon the local publisher, North Dakotans counted on newspapers to publish the minutes of county and city meetings, land proofs, and other official documents. So, as Western lands were settled, publishers were soon to follow, making much of their income by publishing homestead proofs.

By 1918, North Dakota had approximately 350 newspapers. When the United States entered the War in 1917, the papers became an essential tool for coordinating the war effort. Meeting notices, war bond sales, food restrictions, and draft notices were all carried in local newspapers. Pro-German sympathizers were exposed. Red Cross and Y.M.C.A efforts were chronicled. The smash-up of the North Dakota Smashing Second Regiment was proclaimed, and Herbert Hoover’s meatless and wheatless days were announced.

Over the Top

Aug 23, 2018

“Keep a stiff upper lip, Boy!” Merwin Silverthorn grimaced, remembering his father’s words as he lay wounded in a clover field with machine gun bullets cutting the tops of the grass only inches above his head.  Of the forty men who raced one hundred yards across No Man’s Land, he was one of four that reached the other side.  

New Draft

Aug 15, 2018

The American Expeditionary Forces were advancing, with the British and French forces, along the front in France. The causalities were heavy.  As of August 1, 1918, over 1.3 million American soldiers were in France.  The War Department announced plans to send a quarter of a million men per month to France. They were determined to expand the presence of American forces in hopes of shortening the war. This strategy would put almost 3.6 million men at the front by June of 1919, and it would call for a significant increase in the draft.  Congress was posed to expand the draft age to include all males between the ages of 18 and 45. The call was out for North Dakota to prepare to enroll 75,000 men in August and September. 

American Soul

Aug 10, 2018

When Dakota Territory was settled, the United States encouraged the arrival of European immigrants.  At a federal court hearing this week in 1918, Judge Charles Amidon, noted this in the sentencing of the Rev. John Fontana, pastor of the German Evangelical Lutheran church of New Salem, who was convicted for violating the Espionage Act of 1917. The judge said, “We urged you to come, we welcomed you, we gave you opportunity, we gave you land, we conferred on you the diadem of American citizenship, and then we went away and left you. We have paid almost no attention to what you were doing.” 

Help Wanted

Aug 1, 2018

The war had brought about some dramatic labor shifts. Immediately a call went out for 25,000 student nurses in July of 1918, it was followed by a request for graduate nurses who were not already associated with the Red Cross.  Also to this point, nurses who had male relatives in the army had been forbidden to go overseas, but due to the critical shortage, those restrictions were repealed.  North Dakota was asked to furnish eighty nurses to be sent to the front.  It was considered the patriotic duty of every qualified woman to respond at once.