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The 16th Amendment

2/17/2017:

The Industrial Revolution began in the middle of the 18th Century and swept the world like a storm. Following a time when human and animal labor were the main sources of production, inventions like the steam engine and electricity improved the living conditions of many people. However, these improvements did not come without cost. As time went on, a few select persons were amassing large amounts of money as a result of industrialization. By the end of the 19th century in America, a few people at the top controlled financial and manufacturing assets that were being missed by national taxation. It was clear a new system was needed.

Thus, Congress proposed the 16th amendment in 1909 to establishing an income tax, no matter the source of the income. This bill was largely supported by the lower working classes, who felt they were being disproportionately affected by the rise in the cost of living and in tariffs, which were the main source of government funds. On this date in 1911, North Dakota chose to ratify the 16th amendment. However, the amendment’s ratification has been a source of debate ever since its conception.

Secretary of State Philander Know, declared the 16th amendment law on February 25th, 1913, after hearing that 38 states had approved it. But after a closer examination of the processes used, it is revealed that many states did not follow correct procedure. In some states, the wording of the bill was changed so the people did not truly ratify the amendment exactly as written, and in others they never returned a properly certified bill. North Dakota had a properly worded amendment, but it was one of thirteen states that violated a rule requiring the bill to be read on three separate days before the state legislature voted. The rule allows for a cooling off period; it enables members who may be absent for one reading to be present for another; and it allows for a better familiarity with the measure.

A notable critic of the 16th amendment is William Benson, who wrote a book on the subject called, “The Law that Never Was.” His arguments, however, have not allowed his tax evasion attempts to succeed, so think twice before skipping your taxes.

Today’s Dakota Datebook was written by Lucid Thomas.

Bibliography

"https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sixteenth-Amendment" https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sixteenth-Amendment

"https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1981/5/cj1n1-10.pdf" https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1981/5/cj1n1-10.pdf

"http://www.givemeliberty.org/features/taxes/notratified.htm" http://www.givemeliberty.org/features/taxes/notratified.htm

"http://www.billslater.com/wfs_us_constitution.htm" http://www.billslater.com/wfs_us_constitution.htm

"http://www.wnd.com/2000/02/4017/" http://www.wnd.com/2000/02/4017/[podcast]/media/dakotadatebook/2017/feb/17.mp3[/podcast]

The Industrial Revolution began in the middle of the 18th Century and swept the world like a storm. Following a time when human and animal labor were the main sources of production, inventions like the steam engine and electricity improved the living conditions of many people. However, these improvements did not come without cost. As time went on, a few select persons were amassing large amounts of money as a result of industrialization. By the end of the 19th century in America, a few people at the top controlled financial and manufacturing assets that were being missed by national taxation. It was clear a new system was needed.

Thus, Congress proposed the 16th amendment in 1909 to establishing an income tax, no matter the source of the income. This bill was largely supported by the lower working classes, who felt they were being disproportionately affected by the rise in the cost of living and in tariffs, which were the main source of government funds. On this date in 1911, North Dakota chose to ratify the 16th amendment. However, the amendment’s ratification has been a source of debate ever since its conception.

Secretary of State Philander Know, declared the 16th amendment law on February 25th, 1913, after hearing that 38 states had approved it. But after a closer examination of the processes used, it is revealed that many states did not follow correct procedure. In some states, the wording of the bill was changed so the people did not truly ratify the amendment exactly as written, and in others they never returned a properly certified bill. North Dakota had a properly worded amendment, but it was one of thirteen states that violated a rule requiring the bill to be read on three separate days before the state legislature voted. The rule allows for a cooling off period; it enables members who may be absent for one reading to be present for another; and it allows for a better familiarity with the measure.

A notable critic of the 16th amendment is William Benson, who wrote a book on the subject called, “The Law that Never Was.” His arguments, however, have not allowed his tax evasion attempts to succeed, so think twice before skipping your taxes.

Today’s Dakota Datebook was written by Lucid Thomas.

Bibliography

"https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sixteenth-Amendment" https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sixteenth-Amendment

"https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1981/5/cj1n1-10.pdf" https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1981/5/cj1n1-10.pdf

"http://www.givemeliberty.org/features/taxes/notratified.htm" http://www.givemeliberty.org/features/taxes/notratified.htm

"http://www.billslater.com/wfs_us_constitution.htm" http://www.billslater.com/wfs_us_constitution.htm

"http://www.wnd.com/2000/02/4017/" http://www.wnd.com/2000/02/4017/